In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Pleistocene or Holocene vertebrate fossils are dicovered mostly in limestone caves from Serra da Bodoquena. In addition, such fossils commonly belong to large mammals, such as giant sloths, armadillos, glyptodonts, proboscids and large carnivores. However, the occurrence of other vertebrate fossils is scarce. In view of the above, the goal of this work was to perform the first description of Crocodylia fossils from the Formoso River, near the mouth of the Miranda River, in the municipality of Bonito-MS. In addition, some systematic comments were performed. The fossils studied herein are two osteoderms. Although the morphological characteristics of the osteoderms do not allow the identification of their precise position (dorsal or caudal), the results of the comparative analyses by means of linear morphometry are suggestive for the identification of Melanosuchus cf. niger, as well as an indeterminate specimen of Eusuchia. A plausible hypothesis would be to consider a putative case of gigantism in Caiman latirostris Daudin, 1802, whose species is still present in the region. Therefore, the fossils records presented here help us to compose a picture about the structure of the vertebrate communities during the Late Quaternary of Mato Grosso do Sul.
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