**Authors:** Michael C Dickerson, Charles Dickerson

The standard cosmological model calculates the gravitational mass-energy contribution of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) to the mass of the Universe from the single energy density currently observed. The model assumes a homogeneous energy distribution at zero red shift and applies the energy density across the Universe. After reviewing the Friedmann equations for a matter dominated universe and Lematre extension of the space time metric to relativistic energy, we offer an alternative mathematical calculation of the gravitational mass-energy of the CBR component. A complete propagation history of the photons comprising the CBR is used rather than only the current energy density. Because the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light (according to general relativity), and using hot big bang cosmology, we suggest that the higher energy states of the CBR photons in the past also contribute to the currently observed gravitational effects. In our alternative calculation, the CBR energy density is integrated over a range of red shifts in order to account for the gravitational effects of the radiation energy density as it was in the past. By accounting for propagation effects, the resultant gravitational mass-energy calculated for the CBR radiation component almost exactly equals the amount attributed to dark energy. The calculation suggests an extension of the standard cosmological model in which co-moving distance at higher red shift increases with red shift more slowly than it does in the standard model. When compared with Type 1A Supernova data (in an available range of red shift from z = 0.4 to z = 1.5), distance predictions from the extended model have reasonable agreement with observation. The predictions also compare closely with the standard model (up to z = 1.0). Further observations are needed for z > 1.5 to make a final comparison between the standard model and the proposed extended model.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. American Mathematical Society Presentation 2013

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