Quantum Gravity and String Theory

   

Spinning Sphere Theory May Describe Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

In Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is spinning and the universe is a sphere made of spheres. When packing spheres in a spherical shape many imperfections or discontinuities are formed. These are postulated to be the basis for matter. These discontinuities end up being close to the surface area of the sphere which is calculated in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”[6] When one calculates the total mass and the Lorentz mass from a rotating the universe the total mass ends up being pi times the rest mass. This Lorentz mass is postulated to be equivalent to the dark energy that is postulated in an expanding universe, but in the Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is static, in the sense that it is not expanding. The dark energy fraction equal to the Lorentz fraction=(pi-1)/pi*100 percent=68.169 percent. Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5). This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. Calculations

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[v1] 2019-04-06 15:05:52

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