Authors: Christopher Pilot
If we assume a closed universe with slight positive curvature, cosmic expansion can modeled as a heat engine where we define the “system”, collectively, as those regions of space within the observable universe, which will later evolve into voids/ empty space. We identify the “surroundings”, collectively, as those pockets of space, which will eventually develop into matter-filled galaxies, clusters, super-clusters and filament walls. Using this model, we can find the energy needed for cosmic expansion using basic thermodynamic principles, and prove that cosmic expansion had as its origin, a finite initial energy density, pressure, volume, and temperature. Inflation in the traditional sense, with the inflaton field, may also not be required. We will argue that homogeneities and in-homogeneities in the WMAP temperature profile is attributable to quantum mechanical fluctuations about a fixed background temperature in the initial isothermal expansion phase. Fluctuations in temperature can cause certain regions of space to lose heat. Other regions will absorb that heat. The voids are those regions which absorb the heat forcing, i.e., fueling expansion of the latter and creating slightly cooler temperatures in the former, where matter will later congregate. Upon freeze-out, 2 this could produce the observed WMAP signature with its associated CBR fluctuation in magnitude. Finally, we estimate that the freeze-out temperature and the freeze-out time for WMAP in-homogeneities, occurred at roughly 3.02 * 1027 K and 2.54 * 10-35 s, respectively, after first initiation of volume expansion. This is in line with current estimates for the end of the inflationary epoch. The heat input in the inflationary phase is estimated to be Q = 1.81 * 1094 J, and the void volume increases by a factor of only 5.65. The bubble voids in the observable universe increase, collectively, in size from about .046 m3 to .262 m3 within this inflationary period.
Comments: 29 Pages. already published 26.Pilot, C, 2017, Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, as a Thermodynamic Heat Engine, https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.04743 Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung A (ZNA) ZNA Vol:74 (2019) iss:01
[v1] 2019-03-26 19:42:42
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