The following paper derives the fine-structure constant. This derivation suggests that the fine-structure constant can be theoretically determined as the spectrum range of all the energy modes fitting inside the observable universe. This corresponds to the number of allowed radiation modes of a particle from the cosmic horizon down to Planck length. Additionally, an association between Newton's Law of Gravity and Coulomb's Law suggests there is a connection between mass and charge via the fine-structure constant.
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[v1] 2019-02-06 20:54:33
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