Authors: George Rajna
A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study.  The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles.  Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus.  Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004.  Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei.  The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.  Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus.  The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood.  In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays.  Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light.  Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. 
Comments: 42 Pages.
[v1] 2018-12-20 04:31:34
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