Authors: David Johnson
n 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this thesis paper, electrons, positrons and preons are postulated to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are postulated to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed helical solenoidal structure of photons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of a wave-particle duality. Quarks are postulated to be built from preons, and nucleons from up- and down-quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons The model developed provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electronpositron annihilation, electric current (a ‘hole’ free explanation), the ionization process during plasma formation, Gravity and Gravity waves. It also provides good correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do.
Comments: 52 pages long: Diamond C-12 model altered and more explanation of bar models.
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