Authors: David Johnson
In 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this paper however, electrons, positrons and preons are considered to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are considered to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed solenoidal structure of photons, electrons, positrons and preons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of wave-particle duality. Quarks are considered to be built from preons, and nucleons from up and down quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons. It provides a strong correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do. The model also provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral issues such as electricity and Gravity are covered in the appendices to reduce distractions within the body of the paper.
Comments: This 51 page paper presents a wave-particle model for EMR different to that an earlier paper 'The Butterfly Effect and the Electron'
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