Human Papillomavirus is the Cause of Human Prostate Cancer

Authors: Ilija Barukčić

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has an important role in the oncogenesis of several malignant diseases. Some observational studies demonstrated the presence of HPV even in human prostate cancer (PC) while other studies failed on this point. The relationship between HPV infection and PC remains unclear. The aim of the present meta-analysis study is to investigate whether HPV serves as a cause or as the cause of PC. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for suitable articles. Previously published expert reviews and systematic meta-analysis were used as an additional source to identify appropriate articles. Articles selected for this meta-analysis should fulfill the following inclusion criteria: (a) no data access barrier, (b) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA based identification of HPV. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to prove the hypotheses whether being married is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of PC. In other words, without being married no PC. The method of the conditio per quam relationship (sufficient condition) was used to prove the hypotheses if HPV is present in human prostate tissues then PC is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to prove the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between HPV and PC. Significance was indicated by a p-value (two sided) of less than 0.05. Results: In toto more than 136 000 000 cases and controls were re-analysed while more than 33 studies were considered for a meta-analysis. Several studies support the hypotheses without being married no PC. All the studies considered for a re-analyses support the null-hypotheses if HPV then PC, while the cause effect relationship between HPV and PC was highly significant. Conclusions: Human papillomavirus is the cause of human prostate cancer.

Comments: 31 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by

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[v1] 2018-11-24 12:05:42

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