Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Benjamin Franklin considered electricity to be analogous to a fluid, labelling objects containing high levels of electricity as having a negative charge and those with low levels a positive charge. In 1897 J.J. Thomson's cathode ray tube experiments identified electrons, and adopting Franklins’s negative charge convention, he determined their charge-by-mass-ratio (e/m), which contributed significantly to the development of the orbital nuclear model of the atom. Dirac’s equations, so important to the development of Quantum Mechanics, are predicated by a mathematical definition of an electron in terms of an electric point monopole with a negative charge, thus re-enforcing the monopole electron concept. Although since the mid 1960’s nucleons have been considered to be hadrons consisting of up and down quarks, protons are still represented as positively charged monopole particles within the nucleus, maintaining the strong co-dependency between the nuclear model and mono pole charged particles. A toroidal ring model for the electron was first proposed by Alfred Lauck Parson in 1915, variations of which provide a feasible alternative to the monopole concept of the electron. This paper explores implications of adopting a toroidal rather than a monopole model for the electron (the flutter of a butterfly’s wing) and extends the toroidal concept to include Preons, the sub-components of quarks, and thus of nucleons. The resulting atomic structure model is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model (hence the Butterfly Effect). It provides strong correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do. The model also provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral issues such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are covered in the appendices to reduce distractions within the body of the paper. The implications for Physics and Chemistry theory and practice of simply re-defining the structure of the electron are significant, particularly if the toroidal structure proves to be valid, and demonstrates the major impact of quite minor changes to basic assumptions.
Comments: Conclusions on page 34
[v1] 2018-11-17 01:27:55
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