## Accelerating Hubble Redshift

**Authors:** William Q. Sumner

Understanding the “acceleration” of modern Hubble redshift measurements begins with Schr ̈odinger. In 1939 he proved that all quantum wave functions coevolve with the curved spacetime of a closed Friedmann universe. While both photon wavelengths and atomic radii are proportional to the Fried- mann radius, the wavelengths of photons that an atom emits are proportional to the square of the radius. This larger shift in atomic emissions changes the current paradigm that redshift implies ex- pansion. Instead, redshift implies the contraction of a closed Friedmann universe. Hubble redshifts are observed only when old blueshifted photons are compared to current atomic emissions that have blueshifted even more. This theoretical prediction is confirmed by modern Hubble redshift measure- ments. The Pantheon redshift data set of 1048 supernovas was analyzed assuming that atoms change like Schro ̈dinger predicted. The Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are the only variables. The fit, Ho = −72.03 ± 0.25 km s−1Mpc−1 and 1/2 < qo < 0.501, has a standard deviation 0.1516 compared to the average data error 0.1418. No modifications to general relativity or to Friedmann’s 1922 solution are necessary to explain accelerating Hubble redshifts. A nearly flat Friedmann universe accelerating in collapse is enough.

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### Submission history

[v1] 2018-11-10 10:52:51

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