**Authors:** Oreste Caroppo

"What is the structure of the photon?" is the question that has allowed us to arrive at this elegant model capable, in compliance with the laws of physics, to explain all the properties of the photon giving them physical consistency. The photon remains neutral but emerges as constituted by two sub-particles, forming an electric dipole, rototranslating, with the overall mass-energy of the photon divided equally between them, thus describing a double-helix trajectory. This allows to explain the double nature of electromagnetic radiation and of corpuscle of the photon: the frequency and the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation emerge as connected to the characteristics of the rototranslating motion of the photon; a cross section is attributed to the photon trasversal to its propagation direction with a diameter proportional to its wavelength; the spin of the photon emerges from the model exactly; dynamic equilibrium of the photon gives the linear relation that binds energy and frequency in a photon, as we discover the physical meaning of the Planck Constant related to the electrical polarization properties of the vacuum and its inertia to the polarization; the velocity of light in the vacuum is understood to be that velocity at which vacuum "appears transparent", does not polarize, with respect to the charges of the electric photon dipole. This perfect model, of which the first results reported here were developed by the author in the early years of the 21st century, opened the way to the discovery of the baptized "Maxwell's Error" which shows how a physical-mathematical error kept away physicists, about 150 years ago, from the discovery of this fundamental structure of the photon, thus leading to today's problems of Modern Physics. For the great developments and in-depth analyzes established and permitted by this work visit the website at link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ See the most extensive abstract in English also at this link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/-the-photon-double-helicoidal-model-the-key-to-solving-the-problems-of-modern-physics.html EXTENDED PRESENTATION Here we present the discovery of a theoretical structure of the photon capable of explaining all its multiple properties through an electric-magnetic-dynamic model; a symmetrical electric dipole structure, at the base, with the suggestive double-helical trajectory, with a helix angle of 45°, that emerges as a consequence of the basic physical laws of dynamics and of the electric and magnetic interaction between moving charges, (Coulomb force and Lorentz force). These are the results of a theoretical work developed by the author, Oreste Caroppo, in the early years of the 21st century and which were collected for the first time in this work. This surprising model characterized by a high elegance, simplicity and exorbitant explanatory skills, on the one hand has allowed to give a unitary explanation to the plurality of properties connoting the photon, on the other it has also opened the way for the better understanding and resolution of immense problems open and unresolved in Modern Physics. It has guided in the direction of a new revolutionary unification in Physics, passing through the discovery of the theoretical errors related to the conception of the nature of electromagnetic radiation, the "light"; errors which had been unconsciously absorbed, generating, over time, a theoretical propagation of the error that has come up to our days, which is now possible to retrace. We refer to what in later works will be baptized by the author the "Maxwell’s Error" or even "the great original sin of Modern Physics", a physical-mathematical error that, if understood, would have already allowed at the time of the discovery of Maxwell’s equations, about 150 years ago, and even more to the subsequent discovery of the quantization of the electric charge, to hypothesize a granular discrete nature of the electromagnetic radiation, and even already with a basic quantum which is the photon with the dipolar double-helicoidal structure as presented here in the model discovered. An error related to the correct physical and mathematical meaning of the zero setting of the charge density in the Maxwell’s Equations from which Maxwell arrived at the equations of the electromagnetic waves. The setting equal to 0 of the charge density in vacuum is no guarantee of the absence of charge in the empty space in which an electromagnetic wave is propagating, as believed and affirmed, thus concealing instead the compatibility of that null value with the presence in the electromagnetic radiation of electric dipoles as its constituents, whose algebraic sum of the total charge is always null, such as that dipole connoting the structure of the single independent photon studied in this work. The photon is therefore electrically neutral as theorized and ascertained empirically, but we find this to be true as a whole, but in its structural nature it has a dipolar charge distribution which now explains many of its properties, such as the link with the electric and magnetic field of electro-magnetic radiation to it physically intrinsically associated. The model shows how it is now physically possible to associate to the photon a cross section transversal to its propagation direction with a diameter proportional to its wavelength; the photon is therefore not a mono-point entity as up to now simplistically considered. In any case, all the classic properties of the point photon can be found in the center of mass of the photon described by the double-helicoidal model of the photon. We can now better understand the relationships between photon and Maxwell's equations which give a continuous approximate description of a reality whose true nature is at the base discontinuous. Various and numerous developments that start from this work the author has spread more widely on his website at the link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ New light is thus thrown from this work for the better understanding of the nature of matter and antimatter that find their basis in the basic symmetric structure of the photon composed according to this model of two sub-particles having the same mass-energy (each half of the total energy of the photon) and electric charge with the same module, (corresponding to the quantum of electric charge), but with opposite sign. Through this model we discover how the photon, on whose nature of "quantum" all Quantum Mechanics is based, is actually involved and the consequence of another more fundamental and basic quantification of Nature, that is the one of the electric charge and this allowing a theoretical simplification, in good agreement with the criterion of "Occam's razor", but also permitting a great unification in Physics between the results of the past and the twentieth-century discovery of the photon, which in the light of the model and of the theory here exposed, we now understand, does not represent more reason for a crisis in Physics, the one that led to Modern Physics in full conflict with Classical Physics, but the existence of the photon appears as the natural consequence and prediction of the basic physical laws and of the quantization of the electric charge. Through the double-helicoidal model of the photon the wavelength and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation associated with the photon, and also emerging from the equations of the electromagnetic waves of Maxwell, now also assume a physical correlation with the rototraslative motion of the two charges of the dipole and therefore of the two sub-particles which, we discover, compose the photon. The linear relationship between the energy of a photon and its frequency now stands out wonderfully as a physical-mathematical consequence of the dynamic stability of the photon structure, and this finally allows a new understanding of the physical meaning of Planck constant, as well as of the fine-structure constant, which appear as physically linked to the electrical polarization properties of the vacuum and its inertia to this polarization, so much so that the same speed of light in vacuum, as physically-mathematically described by Maxwell's equations, we now understand better to be that velocity to which the vacuum, we can say, appears transparent, does not polarize itself, with respect to the electric charges of the photon dipole. A better understanding of the properties of the vacuum is therefore also allowed by the model. Thus, finally, we come to an understanding of why the value of Planck charge is so close to the value of the elementary electric charge, although in the expression of the Planck charge, obtained through fundamental physical constants, the Planck constant appears, but not the elementary electric charge. The model also leads, by adding the consideration of the gravitational interaction between the two sub-particles of the photon, to obtain all the Planck units and therefore also to better understand their physical meaning. Even finally the concepts of mass in relation to the photon, and not only, can be better understood in the light of the model, against the many ambiguities in which Modern Physics has occurred in the consideration of this very important concept. Even better now we can finally understand the meaning of the equivalence between mass and energy given by the famous equation of Einstein and Olinto de Pretto. In any case, the photon in the exposed model, whose center of mass behaves like a luminal particle, preserves in its entirety the same relativistic mass and the same total rest mass null as expected for the luminal particle photon in Special Relativity. This model also indicates the way to solve the problem of the wave-particle duality for the photon through a single structure capable of explaining both the corpuscular and the undulatory properties of light, together and at the same time, naturally and without any dogma. The double helicoidal model of the photon also leads to a better understanding of the nature of electric fields and magnetic fields indicating also the way to approach the problems opened by the EPR Paradox and Bell's inequalities, as well as indicating the road to overcoming the imposed dogmas with the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics following an incomplete understanding of the nature of the light affected by the aforementioned errors. At the same time it also allows to deepen the error of having considered the electrical and magnetic interaction between electric charges based on the exchange of photons when instead, on the contrary, the existence of the photon is allowed by the same electric charges that we discover to be even its components. Treating the theme of light, of the speed of light, of the properties of vacuum, the open theory then leads in the direction of a critical re-reading of the theories of Relativity, as well as, as widely explained, it also inevitably leads, by treating the photon, to a critical re-reading of the developments in Quantum Physics. Nature is one and could not be fully described, as up to now in Modern Physics, by two theories, Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, with foundations conflicting between them: the Double-Helicoidal Model of the Photon, discovered thanks to the basic question "what is the structure of the photon that explains all its properties? ", was the long-awaited key for correction and reunification because the Physics could advance from the quagmire in which it had slipped because of small very simple but at the same time immense theoretical errors escaped attention. There are countless experimental results regarding the photon which find theoretical explanation through this photon model as well as experimental results on the question of the locality or non-locality of the electrical and magnetic interactions. I also refer, for the many details and developments on this subject, to my website, and to its paragraphs, to the link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ Oreste Caroppo

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