Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
The Conventional Science approach to atomic structure, as represented by the Standard Model and Quantum Physics, is based upon the orbital model for the atom: viz. a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons moving in ‘spdf’ orbitals as spinning particles and/or waves as embodied in Dirac’s wave equation. Although the orbital model has been transformed from Bohr model into its current stochastic quantum form, the orbital concept has not been seriously challenged since Thompson’s nebular and plum pudding models were put aside in deference to Rutherford’s nuclear model in the early 1900’s; and yet ever since it has underpinned the thrust of Physics research and theory. The approach taken by this paper has been to consider how concentrations of energy could combine to form quarks, nucleons and atoms. The resulting model strongly correlates the atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table to their physical and chemical characteristics. It also provides an explanation for different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries as well as for phenomena that the orbital model fails to explain such as beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral topics such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are also addressed (see the appendices) to add depth to the challenge. ‘Challenging the orbital model of the atom’ is not a critique of the orbital model, highlighting its discrepancies and problems: instead it explores the possibilities of an alternative model, which, due to its energy-centric emphasis, has been dubbed ‘Energy to Matter’ (or E2M). E2M provides pragmatic, logically consistent explanations of physical phenomena and challenges the unquestioning pursuit of a problematic, complex and possibly flawed orbital model.
[v1] 2018-10-22 03:16:12
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