Astrophysics

   

A Beyond the Standard Model Solution using a Two-Step Integrated Physics/Mathematics Methodology

Authors: Antonio A. Colella

Two astrophysics issue resolution methodologies are: the prevailing Hawking et. al. single primarily mathematics step and a two-step integrated physics/mathematics consisting of a conceptual physics step followed by an equally important mathematics step. The prevailing single step provided most if not all of the spectacularly successful astrophysics achievements over the last century. However, it provided near zero results for multiple interrelated theories such as a beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and a Theory of Everything (TOE) solution. The prevailing single primarily mathematics step and the two-step integrated physics/mathematics methodologies are complementary and essential for future astrophysics achievements. The Standard Model (SM) consists of 16 matter and force particles: six quark matter particles (up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom); six lepton matter particles (electron, muon, tau, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, and tau-neutrino); and four force particles (photon, W/Z’s, gluon, and Higgs). Although the SM is the gold standard of particle physics, it is inadequate because it: does not emphasize Higgs particles’ supremacy; does not differentiate between more important permanent and less important transient particles; defines only a single Higgs force; does not include the graviton; and does not include dark matter, dark energy, supersymmetry (SUSY), and super supersymmetry (SSUSY) of Higgs particles. Via amplification of four independent theories (superstring, particle creation, Higgs forces or bosons, and spontaneous symmetry breaking), the SM was amplified to Fig. 7 Fundamental SM/supersymmetric/super supersymmetric matter and force particles. The latter contained a total of 64 fundamental matter and force particles of which 22 were permanent and 42 transient. Figure 7 resolved all SM inadequacies and was a conceptual physics BSM solution.

Comments: 24 Pages.

Download: PDF

Submission history

[v1] 2018-10-12 06:36:37

Unique-IP document downloads: 60 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.

comments powered by Disqus