Authors: Abed Peerally
Summary The topics of Dark Matter and Dark Energy and of the Higgs phenomenon, are amongst the dramatic examples of the universe being to a large extent unknown. Reported in the late 1990’s by S. Perlmutter, B. Schmidt and A. Riess, the Nobel Committee in awarding the Nobel Prize to them in 2011 said: Their “findings have unveiled a universe that is to a large extent unknown to science”. That is still true today and is likely to be so for decades to come. These findings were based on the behaviour of the Type 1a Supernovae which, due to their consistent brightness, have developed the reputation of being reliable standard candles in cosmological research. Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess found that these supernovae, as earlier workers for decades had observed, are dimmer than what expected, and they concluded that they must be accelerating faster than believed, in their motion. The work of Riess et al proposed that dark energy, must be a kind of energy that could have an anti-gravitational pull, thus explaining the strange behaviour of the Type 1a supernovae as they move away from us, into the infinite horizon of the universe. Now in the late second decade of the 21st century, no dark energy reality has been discovered at all, and the same applies to the dark matter hypothesis that came out of the work that was awarded the Nobel Prize 2011. It appears like there will perhaps never be any proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy particles, for these are claimed to be unable to interact with normal matter and energy and not to have any radiation. This is a typical example of why perhaps a Theory of Everything is required to throw some light on the mysterious realities of existence, if possible. Actually explaining something that has no material or energy evidence of any kind, makes that something as impossible to explain as God. They do not interact with anything at all. However, if the Theory of Everything can explain how the universe originated, it might surely also provide evidence of whether dark matter and dark energy exist or not. This appears very tricky for they have been claimed as being totally invisible and insensitive to any kind of experimental set up. 2 The Higgs boson came out dramatically in the work of Higgs, Salam, Weinberg, Glashow and others, that found linkages between the weak force and the electromagnetic force. It is believed in relation to the Higgs boson, even if it is not true, that all particles should have zero mass. Several different eminent physicists thought of rather similar ways of explaining mass and its origin. Generally, it was felt that a new Field that was later called the Higgs Field, permeated the universe, and the property of mass was acquired when particles interacted with this field whose particle was named the Higgs boson, the simplest manifestation of the field. However many physicists believe the Higgs phenomenon and its particle discovered in 2012 should be a more elaborate mechanism, on which further work is ongoing, particularly at the LHC. The feeling is that the phenomenon of mass has not understood in its full reality. It goes without saying that in the absence of a Theory of Everything, it is not possible to really know, as far as possible, the nature and fate of the universe, mainly because the universe was conceived on a deliberate master plan. The implication is that there could have existed only one such specific plan: the supernatural plan to create our universe, which to humans is the Theory of Everything as far as possible, capable to describe our universe. The fact humans are destined to discover the Theory of Everything, according to Kepler and Whewell, indicates there was supernatural creation of the universe, and therefore finding the Theory of Everything is an astounding perspective. The scientific/philosophical Theory of Everything will be describes soon, is coming at a historical juncture where several well-known cosmologists are talking about natural creation from practically nothing or based solely on mathematics. Since most intellectuals and members of the public believe the universe had a supernatural creation, a scientific concept of the origin of the universe by a Supernatural Mind or God, would be of enormous interest. It will be the collision of the traditional imaginary Godless concepts of the origin of our universe with a scientific concept that creates an extraordinary historical event in our current intellectual, scientific, philosophical and theological world. Since the Theory of Everything will be really, as far as possible, a universal and metaphysical concept of the universe, it can produce an intellectual revolution in the scientific and philosophical sectors, that will impact on theology in ways not seen before. There whole world will benefit, for the total 3 confusion that surrounds the comprehension of the realities and origin of our universe would reach a turning point, never seen before. It will demonstrate the power of intellectual knowledge as the torch bearer of humanity. The reason is that intellectual ideas are capable to turn humanity into one collective mind in the universe. The universe under GRT is expanding, and there was never been any tendency for the universe to contract and collapse into an unimaginable black hole. Penrose’s hypothesis of a cosmic crunch and the rebirth of the universe (CCC), is not a possibility, because the uncertainly in science is at the quantum microscale, and not at the macro or universal scale. Gravity was correctly explained by Einstein. He referred to it as pseudo-force, causing the warping of space time, being perhaps a kind of variation of the electromagnetic force. The truth is that the nature of black holes happens to be as misunderstood as is the nature of the universe. Cosmology has been a precariously understood domain, the reason being the lack of adequate cosmological understanding of how the universe came into existence. This is not surprising, as I explain in my coming second book on the origin of the universe, for our world is, historically, at the beginning phase of its modern scientific era, being hardly one century old, if we take the golden age of physics of the first decades of the last century, as marking the beginning of our modern scientific culture. No wonder we do not know the real nature of forces, particles, space, time, atoms, matter, gravitation, expansion of the universe, dark energy, dark matter, and the origin and fate of the universe, topics addressed in my second book due in late 2018. Our extraordinary universe must have been inspired by a scientifically precise and elaborate design. Gravity remains one of the greatest mysteries of science for it has no quantum particulate physical identity, its imagined particle, the graviton cannot exist, and up to now gravity can only be calculated and described, for instance in the equations of Newton and Einstein. It exists because it arises due to totally natural reasons, which were largely seen in Descartes’ belief there must exist a law of the universal conservation of the quantity of motion. The quantum nature of spacetime, if it is not a particle, must have physical realities that are sensitive to acceleration, indicating that spacetime is perhaps fractal in its physical reality or at least mathematically, the reason why Einstein was very precise in his description of general and special relativity. String Theory, a great intellectual exercise, has the weakness of not explaining how exactly the strings acquire their 4 property of vibration. Any Theory of Everything must incontrovertibly explain the origin of motion and of gravitation. The physics of the universe are intimately fused with the philosophy of existence, not surprisingly, as the purpose of creation must have been for producing a conscious being, not solely the universe.
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