A Method for Calculating Orbital Velocities in Expanding or Contracting Space-Time

Authors: John S. Huenefeld

We are told that as expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, stars will eventually be ripped from galaxies, then planets will be ripped from their stars. Eventually the planets themselves will be torn apart by the force of expanding space-time and then even molecules and atoms. When asked at what specific expansion rates these things will happen, no one has an answer. Galaxy models used to estimate the amount of dark matter required to explain observed rotation rates do not account for universal expansion in the calculations, as if expansion is not happening within galaxies at all. The consensus is that expansion is very small, and is easily overcome by local forces. This may be true on Earth, or in our solar system, but galaxies are very large, and orbits in galaxies take place in a realm of very small accelerations acting over very large distances. Within a galaxy the size of the Milky Way, outward drift due to expansion may exceed inward fall due to gravity, on a per second basis, by up to thirteen orders of magnitude. It is difficult to imagine how gravity overcomes these relatively large expansion rates and calls into question the correctness of ignoring universal expansion in galaxy models. If ignoring expansion is correct, then does it mean that universal expansion does not actually happen within galaxies? And if not, why not? Why do we see red shift in the light from distant galaxies, clearly a sign of an expanding universe, and yet see no evidence of expansion going on locally in the solar system or within our galaxy? If a method for calculating the orbital velocities of gravitationally bound objects including the effect of expansion (or contraction) of space-time could be developed, these questions will have definitive answers. That is the object of this paper.

Comments: 8 Pages. Up to now, an unsolved problem in physics.

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Submission history

[v1] 2018-07-31 09:58:32

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