Authors: George Rajna
The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost. Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei.  The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.  Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus.  The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood.  In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays.  Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light.  Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way.  Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state.  Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low.  An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field.  Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. 
Comments: 37 Pages.
[v1] 2018-07-25 10:54:26
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