The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation Of Energy And Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon of the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy conservation problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass-equivalency energy. A discussed case about shrinking 10^30 Coulomb electrons into a sphere with the radius less than 1 m is theoretically impossible and it also reveals that the singularity in the black hole is unreasonable due to finite energy in the universe. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we also deduce that the black hole have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Next, using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This fact reveals that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the average universe temperature. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.

Comments: 17 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2018-06-28 12:51:17
[v2] 2018-07-08 10:40:43
[v3] 2018-10-30 23:34:42
[v4] 2019-03-22 04:25:03

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