Authors: Antonio Puccini
Initially the neutron (N) was considered made by the very close union of a proton (P) and an electron (e), i.e. a doublet:〔P, e〕. This is the electron capture process, which involves also an electronic neutrino (e): e+ P N + e. This neutronization reaction occurs continuously in reality: in the Neutron Stars, or in the stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis, creating all the elements of the Periodic Table. Later it was found that some principles of Quantum Mechanics did not allow the presence of e in the nucleus, since e acquiring an energy of ~140 MeV immediately goes away. However, it was not considered that the electron capture occurs just because the e involved is provided with a relativistic energy: ~200 MeV. This explains why this bond lasts for hundreds of millions of years, as in the Neutron Stars. Then it emerged that the Spin Statistics categorically imposed that the N was a fermion, rather than a boson (if it was a doublet). However, if we considered the N as a multiplet, made of 3 particles with half-integer spin, the N would continue to be a fermion safeguarding, likewise, the Spin Statistics and making exhaustive and much more congruous the electron capture equation. It is therefore necessary to integrate the photoannihilation processes (γe+ῡe) to the neutronization, so that: e+P+γe+P+ῡe+eN+e; as we can see, N is equivalent to the multiplet [e, P, ῡe]. However, the N decay (N P+e+ῡe) is energetically unbalanced, since the mass of a ῡe is 5.8eV, against an energy gap between 0.7828-0.511MeV. The only possible solution to solve this striking mass gap problem could be given by a possible neutral electron (e°), or rather its anti-particle: the ē°. Thus the N multiplet (or neutral compound P) would be balanced too: N = [e, P, ē°].
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