Authors: Masataka Ohta
With optical communication technology today, it is practical to communicate with polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) symbols, which are quantum superposition of horizontally and vertically polarized photons, which are, so called, qubits. As the number of bits encoded by a PDM QAM symbol is limited, according to Shannon-Hartley theorem, by signal to noise ratio, the degree of parallelism of quantum computers is limited. The result is consistent with quantum threshold theorem. Quantum entanglement between qubits only makes the number of bits encoded by the qubits smaller, because entanglement means correlation between the qubits. Thus, quantum computers are not more powerful than classical ones. Finally, it is shown that purely classical computers can be arbitrarily fast and ideal, that is, noiseless, quantum computers are classical.
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