Authors: Richard A Peters
Gravitational redshift is currently believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they emerge from a gravitational field into a field of lesser strength. Conversely, gravitational blueshift is believed to be the result of an increase in energy of photons as they move into a gravitational field from a field of lesser strength. Cosmological redshift is believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they travel cosmological distances through an expanding space. I will argue that gravitational redshift is caused by time dilation of the source of radiation at the gravitational body. The redshift of the photons emitted by the source account in full for the measurement of redshift of those photons in a lesser gravitational field. The obverse works for the measurement of gravitational blueshift. The wavelength of the photons received in a stronger gravitational field is measured to be shorter than the emitted wavelength because of time dilation of the receiver. The measured blueshift is illusory and is a measurement artifact. Neither gravitational redshift nor gravitational blueshift results from changes in photon frequency. The frequency of a photon is not changed as the photon moves within a gravitational field to either a weaker or a stronger field. The inherent frequency of a photon is the frequency at which the photon was emitted. The apparent decrease in frequency of the photon in the cosmological redshift results from the increased wavelength that is, in turn, the result of the expansion of space during the photon’s journey, not the result of a decrease in the inherent frequency of the photon. The effect is akin to the Doppler shift caused by the observer’s recessional velocity from the source of radiation. The conclusion: Photon frequency is immutable.
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