Condensed Matter


Alternative Explanation of Magnetism Without Spin

Authors: Gokaran Shukla

Magnetic materials are known from ages. Spin of electrons has been used to explain the magnetism and classify the magnetic materials into different class. In this paper we will provide the alternative explanation of magnetism by using the Brillouin zones, Bragg's diffraction conditions, band-structure of materials and will explain that the fundamental origin of magnetism is same in all the three cases, namely; in ferromagnet (Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, Dy), magnetism arises due to the passing of electric current in metallic wire, and magnetism in every semiconductor or in perfect insulator after heavily doping by $p$-type dopant, so that the electrochemical potential (Fermi energy) of the material either cut or touch the valance-band maxima. We will explain that why iron have more than one valance electron at the Fermi-level using the Brillouin zones, Bragg's diffraction condition, and band-structures of iron. We will explain the origin of the exchange magnetic field that present in every magnetic materials. We will also explain that why $\mathrm{Fe, \enspace Co,\enspace Ni},$ and $\mathrm{Gd}$ behaves as a ferromagnet while $\mathrm{Cr}$ is anti-ferromagnet. We will develop a general rule which applicable to all crystal structure to classify them into a ferromagnetic, diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic in nature. We will use our developed rule and will explain the giant magneto-resistance (GMR), tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR), spin-transfer-torque random access memory (STT-RAM), and magnetic-cluster femto-second switching devices on equal footing. We will also discuss about the $flaw$ that exist in the current existing models which have been extensively used for the explaining the magnetic devices.

Comments: 16 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2018-03-21 03:40:23

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