**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

Physics today has an ambiguous attitude towards ‘velocity’: on the one hand it considers it a “relative” characteristic of which the numerical value depends on any fortuitously chosen reference frame. But on the other hand that same physics tells us that velocity has an absolute upper limit, which is the speed of light. This duality is caused by the fact that the Lorentz transformations accomplish a purely mathematical bridging between a relative velocity at low speeds and an absolute velocity at the speed of light, which causes a length contraction and a time dilation. But it is not clear whether these are observational or real physical phenomena, which has led to a number of contradictions, such as the “twin paradox”. According to the present Standard Model, the Universe must have started with massless particles that moved at the speed of light and then something happened in a way that some particles acquired mass, which is in the present physics explained as a kind of ‘drag’ that is exerted by the Higgs field on certain particles. In this paper the author demonstrates that this massless origin of matter, strongly indicates that elementary mass particles (such as e.g. electrons and quarks) are in fact multi-particle systems that consist of entangled photons. This allows him to establish a general speed equation, that expresses the variable speed of a mass particle in function of the degree of congruence of the repetitive motions of its massless components. This means that variable velocity is a thermodynamic state of a particle system, in the same way as its pressure, its temperature or its entropy. In that way, the obvious fact that the ‘size’ of a dynamic particle system is the area that is covered by the repetitive motions of its components, automatically leads to the Lorentz contraction of a moving mass particle in its direction of motion, which is demonstrated to be a real physical distortion. This means that the Special Theory of Relativity is above all an observational theory, but that its so-called ‘relativistic’ equations, like e.g. the length contraction, the time dilation and the mass-energy equation and their applications e.g. in Quantum Field Theory, describe real physical phenomena, because they are expressed in function of the absolute speed of light. This reveals the physical nature of mass particles as 3-dimensional particle-wave systems that can vary their speed in 3 directions and the physical nature of photons as 2-dimensional particle-wave systems that proceed at an invariable speed and that have mass characteristics (such as linear momentum) in directions perpendicular to their invariable speed.

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