Relativity and Cosmology

   

On the Variation of Vacuum Permittivity in General Relativity

Authors: William Q Sumner

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature. The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions. For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift. For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

Comments: 10 Pages.

Download: PDF

Submission history

[v1] 2017-11-02 06:21:17

Unique-IP document downloads: 27 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.

comments powered by Disqus