Relativity and Cosmology

   

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.

Comments: 20 Pages.

Download: PDF

Submission history

[v1] 2017-09-18 09:35:00

Unique-IP document downloads: 21 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.

comments powered by Disqus