## The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

The kinetic theory defines the temperature of an ideal monatomic gas as a measure for the average translational kinetic energy of its particles. This definition ignores the fact that temperature is inevitably characterized by an isotropic distribution of the velocities of the particles over all possible directions and the continuous collisions and thermal radiation that this brings about.
In this paper I first demonstrate that ‘the thermal energy’ of an ideal gas is in fact a mathematical expression of the total amount of isotropic momentum flow.
This allows me to conclude that the pressure in an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of the particle system and that the temperature of an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of that gas, for a unit number density of its molecules, so that the temperature is in fact the pressure for a unit number density.
In that way I am able to demonstrate that the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution function is not the fundamental characteristic of thermal motion, but that it is a result of the all-sided collisions that are typical for systems consisting of elastic particles with isotropic motion.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2017-08-21 09:04:47

[v2] 2017-11-15 15:35:34

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 98 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary.
In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution.
Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*