Relativity and Cosmology


Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is a deeper gradient and particles appear to be accelerated faster than particles between the arms, even though the rate of time is faster between the arms, just as in stellar systems. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

Comments: 16 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2017-08-13 09:06:24 (removed)
[v2] 2017-08-14 13:45:02 (removed)
[v3] 2017-11-13 16:06:45 (removed)
[v4] 2017-11-18 10:45:12 (removed)
[v5] 2017-11-19 19:05:31 (removed)
[v6] 2017-12-05 19:12:46 (removed)
[v7] 2017-12-08 09:46:13 (removed)
[v8] 2017-12-17 23:29:21

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