Condensed Matter

   

Liquid Electrolytes

Authors: George Rajna

Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11]

Comments: 29 Pages.

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[v1] 2017-07-14 07:48:59

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