## Einstein's Key to Hubble Redshift

**Authors:** W.Q. Sumner

In 1907 Einstein discovered the key to understanding accelerating Hubble redshifts. By assuming that acceleration and gravity are equivalent (“The Happiest Thought of my Life”), he proved that Maxwell’s equations are the same in every acceler- ated reference frame but that vacuum permittivity depends on the acceleration. Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. Maxwell’s equations are valid in every coordinate sys- tem in general relativity. Vacuum permittivity depends on the spacetime curvature. For Friedmann spacetime, vacuum permittivity is proportional to the radius of the universe. When the radius changes, changing electrical fields in atoms change the wavelengths of emitted photons by about twice as much as photon wavelengths change. This is the key Einstein left us: The evolution of both photons and atoms must be used together to understand Hubble redshift. When this is done, the physics of Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, and Friedmann fits modern Hubble redshift observations beautifully.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2017-05-23 19:58:32

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 22 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary.
In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution.
Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*