Authors: Henok Tadesse
A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume emission theory in which the group velocity of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the change in time delay as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source at the instant of light emission and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration) at the instant of light emission, we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer O at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether (wave) theory and emission (particle) theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on absolute velocities of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. A co-moving observer is an observer that continues to move at the same velocity the source had at the instant of light emission. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Determine the velocity of the apparent source relative to the observer 3. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and ether theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction, relative to the detector. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + Vabs in the backward direction and c - Vabs in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative the detector does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . The (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.
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