## Five Part Harmony

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

This text demonstrates that the complex i can be combined with a Hamilton style quaternion to produce a 5-D mathematical structure. Essentially, the complex plane is combined with an arbitrary unit vector. The complex i is shown to anti-commute with the unit vectors i, j, and k. The resulting geometry is shown to be an extension of Hamilton’s quaternions based upon the complex plane rather than real numbers. This new geometric structure is presented in Figure 1 and Equations 3 through 3.3. This configuration makes it possible to calculate the diameter of the proton at rest with the estimated value being 1.668 x 10-15 meter. This is within the accepted measured range of the proton diameter at 1.755(102) x 10-15 meter as given by the NIST, and it is very close to the proton diameter at 1.68174(78) x 10-15 meter as measured at the Paul Scherrer Institute in 2010 by using muonic hydrogen.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2017-02-18 09:09:57

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