High Energy Particle Physics


The Complete Internal Structure, the Origin of Mass, and the Source of Mixing, Entanglement, and Oscillations, in the Lower Stable Hadrons and Leptons

Authors: John R. Springer

A new model of particle structure is presented for the lowest stable hadrons and leptons which shows first: the complete internal quark/gluon structure of the proton, neutron, eta, neutral kaon, and neutral pion mesons and (surprisingly) the muon. It can be extended to include without gluons: the electron, neutrinos, and even the photon. Second, it shows the origin of mass. While mass cannot be assigned to individual quarks which do not exist alone, it can be assigned in totality to a small number of gluons of positive and negative associated mass (±14me). This makes the basic unit of mass the electron mass. Third, it shows that mixing of internal quark states (like the neutral kaon) is common in all particles. In fact, it shows the source of mixing, entanglement, and oscillations. The key to this discovery is the finding that quarks do not exist as single isolated quark-antiquark pairs but only as triads and antitriads. Quark-antiquark pairing does occur but only within a quark triad-antitriad pair. With these claims, a thorough analysis of particle properties, especially mass, yields the precise structure and mass of internal structures; essentially a small number (possibly a string or helix) of quark triad-antitriad pairs. The proton and neutron, in addition, each contain one unpaired triad- uud and ddu respectively. Proof for the model is presented which involves a quark structure for the muon and its subsequent decay.

Comments: 17 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2017-01-01 21:36:01

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