Authors: George Rajna
Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making.  New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain.  Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material.  Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications.  The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices.  LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe.  A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS.  Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology.  In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms".  When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon.  Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons.
Comments: 42 Pages.
[v1] 2016-11-23 08:10:08
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