Dark Energy: a Partial, Preponderant or Complete Illusion Evidenced by the Redshift Anomaly Which Occurs Due to Non Doppler Redshifts Caused by Strengthening Gravitational Wells

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal

The redshift anomaly is key to understanding dark energy. Unfortunately anomalous redshifts have largely been ignored and require further study. "If we find in observation that the Hubble redshift relationship is subject to notable exceptions, which certainly appears to be the case, it is to be hoped that they would attract careful scrutiny. Just one such exception, reasonably verified, would suffice to cast doubt upon the reliability of redshift/distance theory, with far reaching consequences for astrophysics" (Ratcliffe H., 2010, Journal of Cosmology). This paper will explain the cause of the redshift anomaly and then apply the newfound knowledge to the galaxies in the observable universe. NGC 7603 is one example of a redshift anomaly with a discordant redshift system. The objects in the system that have high-z values are in the process of gaining/accreting mass at a high rate relative to their companions at time of observation which causes the anomaly. Applying this knowledge to galactic objects, as matter condenses, the gravity well will "deepen" or strengthen which has the effect of red shifting photons in accordance with the gravity well's rate of strengthening. Thus the observed redshift of any galaxy isn't solely based on the Doppler effect but also the rate of change of the galaxy's gravitational well. The further the look back time, the younger the galaxy is, the faster its mass is increasing, the faster its gravity well is strengthening, the higher the z-value observed will be. The implications of this interpretation is dark energy is either non existent or is overestimated when the proposed phenomenon isn't taken into account when measuring z-values. It is also plausible the universe is static or contracting while still retaining higher redshifts the further we look due to the nature of the look back time. Conversely, when an object is in the process of losing mass, its gravity well shallows which blue shifts photons. Numerous observations that support the hypothesis are provided in the paper. Several tests to prove the hypothesis are described also.

Comments: Pages. Correction: when I refer to "doppler affect", I am also referring to the cosmological redshift

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[v1] 2016-09-30 03:32:35

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