Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An Energy-Exchange theorem is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations -a·b. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson’s formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about measurement in quantum mechanics and produces the -a·b correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.
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