This paper focuses on the symmetries of crystal cells and crystal space lattices. All two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) point groups of 2D and 3D crystal cells are exclusively described by vectors (two in 2D, three in 3D for one particular cell) taken from the physical cells. Geometric multiplication of these vectors completely generates all symmetries, including reflections, rotations, inversions, rotary-reflections and rotary-inversions. The sets of vectors necessary are illustrated in drawings. We then extend this treatment to 2D and 3D space groups by including translations, glide reflections and screw rotations. For 3D space groups we focus on the monoclinic case as an example. A companion paper  describes corresponding interactive visualization software.
Comments: 7 Pages. 7 figures, 2 tables. Proc. of the Int. Sym. on Adv. Mech. Eng., between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (China), 23-26 Nov. 2005, pp. 19-25 (2005).
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