## On the Invalidity of the Hawking-Penrose Singularity ‘Theorems’ and Acceleration of the Universe with Negative Cosmological Constant

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

Hawking and Penrose proposed “A new theorem on spacetime singularities … which largely incorporates and generalizes the previously known results” which they claimed “implies that space-time singularities are to be expected if either the universe is spatially closed or there is an ‘object’ undergoing relativistic gravitational collapse (existence of a trapped surface)” and that their ‘Theorem’ applies if four certain physical conditions are satisfied. Hartle, Hawking and Hertog have proposed a quantum state with wave function for the Universe which they assert “raises the possibility that even fundamental theories with a negative cosmological constant can be consistent with our low-energy observations of a classical, accelerating universe.” They also relate this concept to string cosmology. It is however proven in this paper that the Hawking-Penrose Singularity ‘Theorem’ and accelerated expansion of the Universe with negative Λ are invalid because they are based upon demonstrably false foundations relating to Einstein’s field equations, trapped surfaces, and the cosmological constant.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Versions 1 and 2 of this paper contain a misalignment of references. This has been corrected in version 3. This paper published June 2013, Global Journal of Science Physics and Space Research.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2013-04-08 10:54:01

[v2] 2013-04-18 01:53:58

[v3] 2013-06-02 10:34:44

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 624 times

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*