**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

We show that the third layer of space-time-mass namely, the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest masses of particles and bodies, in the derived spacetime/intrinsic spacetime diagrams in every gravitational field in the previous papers, is made manifest outwardly in flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, with respect to observers in the flat four-dimensional physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR); that the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute rest masses of particles and bodies is imperceptibly embedded in the flat four-dimensional spacetime containing the inertial masses of particles and bodies and that the ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space is an isotropic ‘dimension’ (with no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space, with respect to observers in the physical spacetime. We develop the Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute gravity (NAAG) and Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute motion (NAAM) on the flat absolute-absolute spacetime with respect to observers in the physical spacetime and show that these are the only theories that qualify to be described as Newton's mechanics in a Newtonian absolute space, which Leibnitz pointed out. We therefore identify the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime as the Newtonian absolute spacetime (of classical mechanics); the ‘one-dimensional’ isotropic absolute-absolute space being the controversial Newtonian absolute space, the absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ being the universal synchronous time coordinate that appears in the Gaussian line element and the absolute-absolute time being the universal absolute time parameter of classical mechanics. We conclude with a brief history of the controversies that the Newtonian absolute space concept has generated since Newton's time and the definite resolution of the controversies in the present theory.

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Change doen to the abstract

**Download:** **PDF**

[v1] 2012-11-19 02:49:24

[v2] 2012-11-30 07:21:42

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 21 times

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful. *