**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

We show that the third layer of space-time-mass namely, the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest masses of particles and bodies, in the derived spacetime/intrinsic spacetime diagrams in every gravitational field in the previous papers, is made manifest outwardly in flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, with respect to observers in the flat four-dimensional physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR); that the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute rest masses of particles and bodies is imperceptibly embedded in the flat four-dimensional spacetime containing the inertial masses of particles and bodies and that the ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space is an isotropic ‘dimension’ (with no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space, with respect to observers in the physical spacetime. We develop the Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute gravity (NAAG) and Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute motion (NAAM) on the flat absolute-absolute spacetime with respect to observers in the physical spacetime and show that these are the only theories that qualify to be described as Newton's mechanics in a Newtonian absolute space, which Leibnitz pointed out. We therefore identify the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime as the Newtonian absolute spacetime (of classical mechanics); the ‘one-dimensional’ isotropic absolute-absolute space being the controversial Newtonian absolute space, the absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ being the universal synchronous time coordinate that appears in the Gaussian line element and the absolute-absolute time being the universal absolute time parameter of classical mechanics. We conclude with a brief history of the controversies that the Newtonian absolute space concept has generated since Newton's time and the definite resolution of the controversies in the present theory.

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Change doen to the abstract

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[v1] 2012-11-19 02:49:24

[v2] 2012-11-30 07:21:42

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