**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

The ‘elliptical’ shape of planetary orbits results from motion of the solar system. The planetary orbits are essentially not elliptical. Motion of the solar system also results in the increase of the sizes of the orbits. The solar system is not only moving, but also moving with acceleration around an outward spiraling orbit. This acceleration leads to non fixed planetary orbits. Due to the acceleration of the solar system, the planets are moving in orbits that continuously increase in size. Thus, the planets are not actually moving in fixed orbits, but rather in a spiral path around the sun due to the acceleration of the sun so that the planets are always slightly receding away from the sun. (This effect is analogous with electromagnetism in which an accelerating charge radiates an EM wave). The acceleration of the solar system can be explained by the same factor causing acceleration of galaxies. Thus the paradigm of fixed orbits should be abandoned, according to this theory. If the solar system was not moving, the orbits would be circular and smaller. The apparent perihelion advance of Mercury may also be explained by this theory. It may be because of the non steady state condition and the accumulation of ‘errors’ throughout every revolution, and the position, speed and direction at the end of each revolution becomes the initial condition for the next revolution and hence the apparent perihelion advance in a complicated way. According to the theory proposed in this paper, a perihelion point always is at ninety degrees to the left of the sun (for counterclockwise revolution) when looking in the direction of motion of the solar system and cannot change in a steady state condition. Therefore, no sustainable orbital precession is possible in a steady state condition. However, there is no steady state condition in the solar system (at the small level of the observed perihelion advance of Mercury) because of the acceleration. We cannot talk about a perihelion point in a non steady state condition. The observed apparent advance of the perihelion is because of non steady state conditions. The orbits would be spherical and fixed and smaller if the solar system was at rest. One consequence of this theory is the need to review the calculated mass of the sun: the mass of the sun is actually smaller than what we know so far because it is calculated on the basis of the measured radius. The acceleration of the solar system may be due to its spiraling outward orbit from the center of the universe. (in this paper, the whole concept of relativity and hence ‘expanding of space’ is discarded). The universe has a center. The acceleration of galaxies away from us may be a result of non linear and non uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The distribution of matter may be such that the overall density increases as we go away from the center. Thus every object in the universe is falling (spiraling and accelerating) towards outer space. Therefore, the observed red shift (acceleration) of galaxies may be due to their falling towards the higher density outwards away from us. On the cosmic scale, therefore, the distribution of matter (for example, directly proportional to the square of distance from the center; this should be checked mathematically) should be in such a way that the direction of the gravitational field is away from the center.

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[v1] 2012-11-13 13:49:49

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