Mind Science


The Evolution of Species and Societies Through Three-Level Selection

Authors: Dao Einsnewt

Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collective, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) the development of the three-branch way, and (3) the Postmodern Period. (1) Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from neuroscience and psychology. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) In the Prehistoric Period, the harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collective society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collective society, the state collective religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism) dominated. In the individualistic society, the state individualism (Greek mythology and science) dominated. Later, the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) emerged. In the Modern Period, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society for the modern three-branch society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collective (socialistic), and adaptive (unified) economies. The postmodern unified political system is divided into the partisan unified political system where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies and the nonpartisan unified political system where the state represents both societies. The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collective education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. In the postmodern religious system, the postmodern harmonious religion complementary to the collective and individualistic societies is the most suitable postmodern religion. Permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems.

Comments: 134 Pages.

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[v1] 2012-08-17 10:33:28

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