Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Presently, a new model for neutron structure has been proposed. Because the standard quark model and the other neutron models fail to give explanation of the questions, e.g.: 1. A neutron happens to be unstable in its free state and becomes stable in stable nuclei and systems (e.g. deuterons and alpha particles), but why and how? 2. What does happen or situation is created in stable nuclei/systems such that the neutrons become stable in them? 3. Why and how is that situation not being created in nuclei/systems having, e.g. two-neutrons, three-neutrons and one-proton etc.? 4. Why and how does neutron have unstable and stable, both the states, while the rest of all the elementary particles have only one state, either stable or unstable? 5. Why and how does neutron survive for time t = 885.7 seconds (mean life time of neutron) and then decays, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second? 6. Why and how do neutrons have high penetrating power and distinguishable low and high-energy ranges? The present model gives clear and complete explanation of all the above questions along with very clear and complete explanation of the following several greatly important phenomena/events: 1. Why and how beta particles, which are electrons, are emitted from the nuclei during beta decay while it is believed that the electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 2. Why and how energy of beta particles emitted during beta decay varies in the form of a continuous energy spectrum; 3. Why and how nature has provided us only deuteron while the bound states, di-proton and di-neutron are also theoretically possible but do not exist; 4. Why and how binding energy per nucleon (Eb) of tritium and helium-3 are increased to > 2×Eb of deuteron, and Eb of tritium > Eb of helium-3; 5. Why and how tritium is radioactive and decays into helium-3 through beta decay; 6. How two-neutrons and two-protons are arranged in an alpha particle such that it persists and behaves like a particle and beams of alpha particles are obtained despite having repulsive Coulomb force between them; 7. Why and how Eb of alpha particle is increased to > 6× Eb of deuteron, instead of increasing to 2×Eb of deuteron; 8. How nucleons are arranged in nuclei having mass number A = integer multiple of 4 that the nuclei become most strongly stable; 9. Why and how Eb of beryllium-8 < Eb of helium-4, while Eb of nuclei increases as their A increases in multiple of 4; 10. Why and how nuclei having A not equal to integer multiple of 4 are not strongly stable; 11. Why and how near A = 62, Eb is maximum and then it gradually decreases as A increases and ultimately for A > 200, the nuclei become radioactive and alpha, beta, gamma, neutrino are emitted from them; 12. How gamma and neutrino obtain particle like physical existence and so high energy and penetrating power. Finally an important conclusion has been drawn that the strength of stability of a nucleus does not depend only upon Eb of the nucleus but also upon the strength of stability of neutrons of the nucleus, because the later one too varies.
Comments: 70 Pages. 8 Figures
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