Quantum Gravity and String Theory


Algebraic Braids, Sub-Manifold Braid Theory, and Generalized Feynman Diagrams

Authors: Matti Pitkänen

The basic challenge of quantum TGD is to give a precise content to the notion of generalization Feynman diagram and the reduction to braids of some kind is very attractive possibility inspired by zero energy ontology. The point is that no n>2-vertices at the level of braid strands are needed if bosonic emergence holds true.

  1. For this purpose the notion of algebraic knot is introduced and the possibility that it could be applied to generalized Feynman diagrams is discussed. The algebraic structrures kei, quandle, rack, and biquandle and their algebraic modifications as such are not enough. The lines of Feynman graphs are replaced by braids and in vertices braid strands redistribute. This poses several challenges: the crossing associated with braiding and crossing occurring in non-planar Feynman diagrams should be integrated to a more general notion; braids are replaced with sub-manifold braids; braids of braids ....of braids are possible; the redistribution of braid strands in vertices should be algebraized. In the following I try to abstract the basic operations which should be algebraized in the case of generalized Feynman diagrams.
  2. One should be also able to concretely identify braids and 2-braids (string world sheets) as well as partonic 2-surfaces and I have discussed several identifications during last years. Legendrian braids turn out to be very natural candidates for braids and their duals for the partonic 2-surfaces. String world sheets in turn could correspond to the analogs of Lagrangian sub-manifolds or two minimal surfaces of space-time surface satisfying the weak form of electric-magnetic duality. The latter opion turns out to be more plausible. Finite measurement resolution would be realized as symplectic invariance with respect to the subgroup of the symplectic group leaving the end points of braid strands invariant. In accordance with the general vision TGD as almost topological QFT would mean symplectic QFT. The identification of braids, partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets - if correct - would solve quantum TGD explicitly at string world sheet level in other words in finite measurement resolution.
  3. Also a brief summary of generalized Feynman rules in zero energy ontology is proposed. This requires the identification of vertices, propagators, and prescription for integrating over al 3-surfaces. It turns out that the basic building blocks of generalized Feynman diagrams are well-defined.
  4. The notion of generalized Feynman diagram leads to a beautiful duality between the descriptions of hadronic reactions in terms of hadrons and partons analogous to gauge-gravity duality and AdS/CFT duality but requiring no additional assumptions. The model of quark gluon plasma as s strongly interacting phase is proposed. Color magnetic flux tubes are responsible for the long range correlations making the plasma phase more like a very large hadron rather than a gas of partons. One also ends up with a simple estimate for the viscosity/entropy ratio using black-hole analogy.

Comments: 37 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2012-01-30 23:59:08

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