**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The arguments of this article support the view that in TGD Universe number theoretic and geometric Langlands conjectures could be understood very naturally. The basic notions are following.

- Zero energy ontology (ZEO) and the related notion of causal diamond CD (CD is short hand for the cartesian product of causal diamond of M
^{4}and of CP_{2}). ZEO leads to the notion of partonic 2-surfaces at the light-like boundaries of CD and to the notion of string world sheet. These notions are central in the recent view about TGD. One can assign to the partonic 2-surfaces a conformal moduli space having as additional coordinates the positions of braid strand ends (punctures). By electric-magnetic duality this moduli space must correspond closely to the moduli space of string world sheets. - Electric-magnetic duality realized in terms of string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces. The group G and its Langlands dual
^{L}G would correspond to the time-like and space-like braidings. Duality predicts that the moduli space of string world sheets is very closely related to that for the partonic 2-surfaces. The strong form of 4-D general coordinate invariance implying electric-magnetic duality and S-duality as well as strong form of holography indeed predicts that the collection of string world sheets is fixed once the collection of partonic 2-surfaces at light-like boundaries of CD and its sub-CDs is known. - The proposal is that finite measurement resolution is realized in terms of inclusions of hyperfinite factors of type II
_{1}at quantum level and represented in terms of confining effective gauge group. This effective gauge group could be some associate of G: gauge group, Kac-Moody group or its quantum counterpart, or so called twisted quantum Yangian strongly suggested by twistor considerations. At space-time level the finite measurement resolution would be represented in terms of braids at space-time level which come in two varieties correspond to braids assignable to space-like surfaces at the two light-like boundaries of CD and with light-like 3-surfaces at which the signature of the induced metric changes and which are identified as orbits of partonic 2-surfaces connecting the future and past boundaries of CDs.There are several steps leading from G to its twisted quantum Yangian. The first step replaces point like particles with partonic 2-surfaces: this brings in Kac-Moody character. The second step brings in finite measurement resolution meaning that Kac-Moody type algebra is replaced with its quantum version. The third step brings in zero energy ontology: one cannot treat single partonic surface or string world sheet as independent unit: always the collection of partonic 2-surfaces and corresponding string worlds sheets defines the geometric structure so that multilocality and therefore quantum Yangian algebra with multilocal generators is unavoidable.

In finite measurement resolution geometric Langlands duality and number theoretic Langlands duality are very closely related since partonic 2-surface is effectively replaced with the punctures representing the ends of braid strands and the orbit of this set under a discrete subgroup of G defines effectively a collection of "rational" 2-surfaces. The number of the "rational" surfaces in geometric Langlands conjecture replaces the number of rational points of partonic 2-surface in its number theoretic variant. The ability to compute both these numbers is very relevant for quantum TGD.

- The natural identification of the associate of G is as quantum Yangian of Kac-Moody type group associated with Minkowskian open string model assignable to string world sheet representing a string moving in the moduli space of partonic 2-surface. The dual group corresponds to Euclidian string model with partonic 2-surface representing string orbit in the moduli space of the string world sheets. The Kac-Moody algebra assigned with simply laced G is obtained using the standard tachyonic free field representation obtained as ordered exponentials of Cartan algebra generators identified as transversal parts of M
^{4}coordinates for the braid strands. The importance of the free field representation generalizing to the case of non-simply laced groups in the realization of finite measurement resolution in terms of Kac-Moody algebra cannot be over-emphasized. - Langlands duality involves besides harmonic analysis side also the number theoretic side. Galois groups (collections of them) defined by infinite primes and integers having representation as symplectic flows defining braidings. I have earlier proposed that the hierarchy of these Galois groups define what might be regarded as a non-commutative homology and cohomology. Also G has this kind of representation which explains why the representations of these two kinds of groups are so intimately related. This relationship could be seen as a generalization of the MacKay correspondence between finite subgroups of SU(2) and simply laced Lie groups.
- Symplectic group of the light-cone boundary acting as isometries of the WCW geometry kenociteallb/compl1 allowing to represent projectively both Galois groups and symmetry groups as symplectic flows so that the non-commutative cohomology would have braided representation. This leads to braided counterparts for both Galois group and effective symmetry group.
- The moduli space for Higgs bundle playing central role in the approach of Witten and Kapustin to geometric Landlands program is in TGD framework replaced with the conformal moduli space for partonic 2-surfaces. It is not however possible to speak about Higgs field although moduli defined the analog of Higgs vacuum expectation value. Note that in TGD Universe the most natural assumption is that all Higgs like states are "eaten" by gauge bosons so that also photon and gluons become massive. This mechanism would be very general and mean that massless representations of Poincare group organize to massive ones via the formation of bound states. It might be however possible to see the contribution of p-adic thermodynamics depending on genus as analogous to Higgs contribution since the conformal moduli are analogous to vacuum expectation of Higgs field.

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

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[v1] 1 Nov 2011

[v2] 2012-01-30 08:18:27

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