Authors: Juan Ramón González Álvarez
Although an unambiguous definition of heat is available for closed systems, the question of how best to define heat in open systems is not yet settled. After introducing a set of physical requirements for the definition of heat, this article reviews the non-equivalent definitions of heat for open systems used by Callen, Casas-Vázquez, DeGroot, Fox, Haase, Jou, Kondepudi, Lebon, Mazur, Misner, Prigogine, Smith, Thorne, and Wheeler, emphasizing which physical requirements are not met. A subsequent section deals with the main objective of this article and introduces a new definition of heat that avoids the difficulties of the existent definitions, providing (i) a complete distinction between open and closed systems, (ii) non-redundancy, (iii) natural variables for the thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) a sound, complete, and intuitive generalization of classical thermodynamic expressions.
Comments: 13 Pages. Accepted for publication in the "International Journal of Thermodynamics", with minor changes
Unique-IP document downloads: 331 times
Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.
Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.