Relativity and Cosmology


The Change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and gravitational potential energy (GPE). In this paper, it is being shown that the universe can be born and expanded through pair creation of positive energy (mass) and negative energy (mass) from zero energy condition. Also, GPE is composed by 3 units of U++, U--, and U-+ when negative and positive energy exists, U-+ (GPE between negative mass and positive mass) has positive values and is the component that makes repulsive gravitational effect. U-+ corresponds with the inner energy of the system and can be interpreted as dark energy. The force by U-+ is F = (4piG/3)k_h(t)Mρr = (1/3)Λ(t)Mc^2r shaped. Also, situations in which U-+ has much higher value than |U--| + |U++| depending on the distribution of negative mass and positive mass is possible. This doesn't mean that 72.1% of dark energy independently exists, but means that explanation from GPE occurring from 4.6% of negative energy, which is the same as 4.6% of positive energy, is possible. Moreover, 4.6% of negative energy is the energy which is inevitably required from zero energy, which is the most natural total energy value in the universe. This discovery implies that our belief that size of gravitational effect and size of components of the universe would always 1:1 correspond was wrong. We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level. As a result, we could verify that “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass” explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

Comments: 25 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 7 Oct 2011
[v2] 2011-12-11 20:50:48
[v3] 2012-02-09 10:17:37
[v4] 2012-02-22 09:36:03
[v5] 2013-01-27 06:25:34
[v6] 2013-01-31 05:37:24
[v7] 2013-02-14 03:11:11
[v8] 2013-05-19 14:41:55
[v9] 2013-08-01 13:19:27

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