**Authors:** Meir Amiram

Based on Richard Feynman's argument in rejection of Fatio/Le-Sage's gravity, I indicate that dark energy, or the "something" that pushes galaxies apart must do its magic without killing inertia of the galactic matter rotational motion. I then turn to investigate the Hubble expansion: independent studies from different areas of physics reveal that the age of the universe is closely 13.7Gy. This substantially corresponds to the inverse of the Hubble parameter H0. I suggest that our era is not unique: the age of the universe at any given time ATB is equal to the inverse of the Hubble parameter at the given time. I propose to substitute the conventional Hubble parameter H0 which relates to expansion of distances, by a volumetric form of the same, vH0, corresponding to the volumetric expansion of space. A formula is derived accordingly, which connects between the volumetric Hubble parameter at any given age of the universe, the volumetric Hubble parameter at any other given age, and the time separation between these two ages. Logical study of the formula reveals that the Hubble expansion is analogous to, and may actually result from, an addition of constant amount of space "units" per a unit of time, into the universe. I postulate that space itself possesses the peculiar property of interacting with matter in a selective manner which on the one hand results with a drag thereby producing the universal expansion, and on the other complies with Feynman's argument and does not result with an inertia killing drag. In the initiation of the bang, the first constant amount entered a zero volume gravity free universe, since gravity depends on the presence of space, and was able to occur only after a time delay T2 (see Article 2) each EMP must experience before it builds up its field and before it can respond to fields generated by others. In the absence of gravity, no energy nor inflaton were required for initiating the bang and for dragging the elementary particles apart merely by space units entering in between. I further postulate that as a phenomenon of space, gravity is distributed volumetrically. Consequently, for cosmological distances the propagation of gravity becomes slower than the expansion of space, thus receding galaxies are gravitationally unbounded. It follows that the Hubble expansion does not require any sort of energy, since there is no gravitational attraction to defeat, nor inertia to produce.

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[v1] 5 Jul 2011

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