## Gravitational Energy Cannot Be Negative: a Comment on The Grand Design

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

The authors of The Grand Design treat the gravitational
energy of a large astronomical object as a negative quantity.
The formula used to calculate gravitational energy is GM 2 r ,
in which all quantities are positive. Even if mass were considered
to be negative, the square of the mass is a positive quantity. All
other quantities in the formula are positive because G is positive,
and since there is no such physical thing as a negative radius, r is
positive. The authors have simply affixed a negative sign in front
of the formula, which is neither correct mathematically nor physically.
We show in this paper that the correct treatment of gravitational energy
leads to the conclusion that Earth's gravitational energy produces Earth's
space. Earth has its own space, as does every astronomical object in the
Universe. The general overall space of the Universe, therefore, is a
series of interacting spaces.

**Comments:** 3 pages

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### Submission history

[v1] 8 Nov 2010

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