## Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured
experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is
explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b)
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons}is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{88}, that in fact it is much lower,
allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to
without near sudden increases to 10^{88} may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton
production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

**Comments:** 8 pages, AIP conference proceedings entry 1168, "Numerical analysis and
applied mathematics, 2009, Reythmono, Crete" , Greece; a peer reviewed
submission to 'Symposium: The big challenge of Gravitational waves, a New
Window into the future', as organized by Dr. Christian Corda of the Associazione
Scientifica Gallieo Galilei: pp 1077-1083 of AIP conference proceedings 1168

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 22 Sep 2009

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