## The Spiral Structure of NGC 3198.

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

Observations of NGC 3198 show a discrepancy between the rotational velocity and its apparent geometry which defies the predicted behaviour of Keplerian Dynamics. This paper reconciles this anomaly by considering the relativistic effect of gravity on galactic spiral arms over great distances in a rotating reference frame. Keplerian dynamics hold true in this analysis by considering the rotational behaviour of a cloud of stars as more accurate than that of a central mass with satellites at discrete orbits. A re-examination from first principles describes the spiral arms of NGC 3198 as a linear star cloud of near-uniform density which appears, from our local reference frame, as a non-uniform disc due to its rotation. The apparent non-uniform radial distribution of stars is described by delayed gravitational interactions over great distances in an accelerating reference frame whereby a uniform distribution of stars appears to occupy an increasing circumference. The theory is substantiated by deriving the shape of a linear star cloud of the dimensions and rotational velocity of NGC 3198 as it would appear from Earth, using Einstein's equations and Keplerian dynamics. Since the derived shape is congruent with the observed shape of NGC 3198, the exact shape and size of the resulting spiral can be used to determine its distance from Earth with great accuracy using simple trigonometry.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Explanation of flat velocity rotation curve and distance measure to NGC 3198

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### Submission history

[v1] 1 Sep 2009

[v2] 9 Nov 2009

[v3] 2012-03-05 11:43:58

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